Freedom Fact Sheet: The Constitution of The United States of America

January 18, 2022

The below definitions are frequently used keywords in the Constitution of the United States. Knowing these definitions allows for a deeper understanding of this important founding document.

BELOW IS A LIST OF KEYWORDS:

A

Adjourn: stops for a short amount of time

Adoption: the act of starting to use a particular plan, method, way of speaking, etc.

Admiralty: the court having jurisdiction over questions of maritime law

Alliance: 1) a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes 2) a union between people, groups, countries, etc. 3) a relationship in which people agree to work together

Ambassador: a diplomatic agent of the highest rank accredited to a foreign government or sovereign, as the resident representative of his or her own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment

Amendment: a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document. This is also the process of making formal changes to the United States Constitution. As of 2021, there are 27 amendments or “changes” to the Constitution.

Article: 1) a part of a law or legal agreement that deals with a particular point 2) a particular kind of object

 Appellate: having the power to review the judgment of another tribunal

Appoint: 1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen

Apportioned: the act of deciding how something should be shared among various people, groups

Appropriation: the act of authorizing something for a specific purpose or use

Arsenal: an establishment for the manufacture or storage of arms and military equipment

Ascertain: to find out something

Attainder: extinction of the civil rights and capacities of a person upon sentence of death or outlawry usually after a conviction of treason

Attained: to have arrived at or succeeded in reaching something

Attaint: to affect by attainder

B

Bankruptcy: 1) a state of being financially insolvent 2) completely lacking in a particular desirable quality or attribute

Bill of Attainder: a legislative act that gives the government or King permission to give punishment to a person, even though he or she was not found guilty by a court of law

Branch: a part or subdivision of a government or organization

Breach of the Peace: a violation of public order as by a riot or disturbance

C

Capitation: a fee or payment of a uniform amount for each person

Census: a count of the population

Chief Justice: the head judge in a court of law, especially the U.S. Supreme Court

Citizen: a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country

Class: a group of people that are considered together because they are similar in some way

Coin: 1) a usually flat piece of metal issued governmental authority as money 2) to make, create (a coin)

Commerce: economic activity, and the exchange of good and services between businesses or entities

Common Defense: military protection for all public citizens

Compensation: payment

Composed: arranged carefully

Concurrence: agreement

Confederation: a group of people, political parties, or organizations that have united for political purposes or trade

Congress: a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government

Consist: to be composed or made up of something

Constitute: make up, form, compose. If several people or things constitute something, they are the parts that form it.

Consul: a government official sent to live in a foreign city to help people from his or her own country who are living or staying there

Convention: 1) a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same government 2) an agreement between countries covering particular matters, especially less formal than a treaty

Convict: to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a court of law

Counterfeit: made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive

D

Debt: a sum of money that a person or organization owes

Defense: the action of defending from or resisting attack. Note: In British English spelling they use the spelling with a “c” – defence. The Founding Fathers were raised learning British English. Today defense is spelled with “s” in the United States. Both are correct ways to spell the same word.

Democracy: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation, usually involving periodically held free elections. In a direct democracy, people can have direct control over the government in making decisions. In an indirect democracy, also known as a representative democracy and/or republic, all eligible people can vote for representatives to pass laws and exert government control for them.

Discharge: the act of removing an obligation or liability

Disqualification: to lose eligibility because of being deemed unfit or not meeting the conditions to fulfil a role

Dockyard: a shipyard

E

Elections: the selection of a person or persons for office by vote

Electors: people who have the right to vote in an election

Emolument: money or another form of payment for work you have done; compensation for services

Engagement: an official arrangement to do something, especially one that is related to your work

Erected: to give legal existence to by a formal act of authority

Excise: a tax imposed within a nation or colony, levied on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of specific commodities

Ex Post Facto Law: a law that makes an act a crime after it was committed

Executive: belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)

Executive Branch: one of the three branches of our government with the purpose of enforcing laws. This branch of government includes the president, vice president, the Cabinet, executive departments, and other federal agencies.

Expenditure: the act or process of spending

F

Faith: 1) a strong feeling of trust or confidence in someone or something 2) belief and trust in God 3) referring to any religious or spiritual belief a person believes to be true to himself or herself

Felony: a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for more than one year

Forfeit: to lose or lose a right especially by some error, offense, or crime

Fort: a permanent army post

Full Faith and Credit Clause: a constitutional provision in Article IV of the Constitution that requires all states to honor the laws, judgments, and public documents of every other state

G

General Welfare: the overall wellbeing of the citizenry

Government: the group of people who govern a country, state, or town

Granted: given something is true

H

Herein: in this place, situation, document, etc.

House of Representatives: the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.

I

Impeachment: a charge of misconduct made against the holder of a public office. It involves an accusation against that official and is a political process.

Impost: something established by authority

Immunities: special protection from what is required for most people by law

Indictment: an official written statement charging someone with a criminal offense

Inhabitant: one of the people who lives in or occupies a particular place

Insurrection: a usually violent attempt to take control of a government

Intermediary: a person or organization that acts as a go-between to facilitate agreements among different parties

J

Judgment: an official decision given by a judge or court of law

Judicial: belonging to the branch of government that is charged with trying all cases that involve the government and with the administration of justice within its jurisdiction

Judicial Branch: one of the three branches of our government with the purpose of interpreting laws and resolving controversies brought through court cases. They determine the constitutionality of the law and apply it to individual legal cases. At the federal level, judicial members are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

Jurisdiction: the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised

Justice: fairness in the way people are treated

L

Legislative Branch: the legislative branch is made up of the House and Senate, known collectively as the Congress. Among other powers, the legislative branch makes all laws, declares war, regulates domestic and foreign commerce and controls taxing and spending policies.

Legislature: an institution that has the power to make or change laws

Letter of Marque: permission to cross over the frontier into another country’s territory in order to take a ship

Letter of Reprisal: authorizes taking the captured vessel to the home port of the capturer

Levy: 1) to charge (a tax, fee, or fine) 2) the enlistment or conscription of men for military service

Liable: eligible to being legally punished or forced to do something by law

M

Magazine: a place where goods or supplies are stored

Maritime: of, relating to, or bordering on the sea

Migration: to move from one country, place, or locality to another

Militia: a body of armed citizens who are equipped to defend the country, its system of laws, and the people’s liberties

Minister: a politician who is in charge of a government department

Measures: 1) a step planned or taken as a means to an end 2) specifically: a proposed legislative act 3) a unit or object used to find out the size, extent, or amount of something

N

Naturalization: the course of action undertaken to become a citizen of a country other than the country in which one was born

O

Officers: one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command

Ordain: formally say that something should happen

Order: 1) for the purpose of doing something 2) the way that things or events are arranged in relation to each other, so that one thing is first, another thing is second, etc.

P

President: 1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business

President Pro Tempore: the senior member of the majority party in the Senate who serves as the president of the Senate when the Vice President is absent

Proceedings: when someone uses a court of law to deal with a legal case

Pro Tempore: happening or existing now, but only for a short time; temporary

Prescribed: decided by a rule

Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus: the legal procedure that protects against unlawful and indefinite imprisonment

Punishment: a penalty inflicted on an offender through judicial procedure

Pursuance: to follow and try to catch or capture (someone or something) for usually a long distance or time

Q

Qualifications Requisite: necessary skills, personal qualities, or type of experience that makes you suitable for a particular job or position

R

Ratify: to make a written agreement official by signing it

Recess: a period of time when the proceedings of Congress, a committee, a court of law, or other official body are temporarily suspended

Regulate: to govern or direct according to rule

Regulation: an official rule or order

Reprieve: an order or warrant for a temporary suspension of an execution of a sentence

Representative: someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else

Republic: the type of government in which voters elect representatives to make the laws for the country. The United States is a republic.

Resignation: an occasion when you officially announce that you have decided to leave your job or an organization, or a written statement that says you will be leaving

S

Secure: to get or achieve something

Senate: one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.

Senator: a member of the Senate

Subsequent: happening or coming after something else

Supreme: the greatest possible

Suffrage: the right or privilege of voting

T

Tax: a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions

Term: a fixed period during which someone elected to office can participate in government as an elected official

Testimony: firsthand authentication of a fact, evidence

Title of Nobility: a descriptive name given to the body of persons forming the “noble” or royal class in a country or state, aristocracy

Tonnage: ships in terms of the total number of tons registered or carried or of their carrying capacity. 1 ton = 2,000 lbs.

Treason: the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence

Treasury: a governmental department in charge of finances and especially the collection, management, and expenditure of public revenues

Treaty: an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation that requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senators present

Trial: a legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examine information to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime

Tribunal: a court or forum of justice

U

Union: a group of countries or states with the same government

V

Vested: protected or established by law or contract. Vested rights, powers, property, etc. belong to you and cannot be removed.

Vice President: an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability

W

Weight: the relative importance or authority accorded something

Article. I.

Section. 1.

All legislative Powers herein (in this place, situation, document, etc.) granted (given something is true) shall be vested (protected or established by law or contract. Vested rights, powers, property, etc. belong to you and cannot be removed.) in a Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) of the United States, which shall consist (to be composed or made up of something) of a Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) and House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.).

Section. 2.

The House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.) shall be composed (arranged carefully) of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election) in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite (necessary skills, personal qualities, or type of experience that makes you suitable for a particular job or position) for Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election) of the most numerous Branch (a part or subdivision of a government or organization) of the State Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws).

No Person shall be a Representative (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) who shall not have attained (to have arrived at or succeeded in reaching something) to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant (one of the people who lives in or occupies a particular place) of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) and direct Taxes (a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions) shall be apportioned (the act of deciding how something should be shared among various people, groups) among the several States which may be included within this Union (a group of countries or states with the same government), according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term (a fixed period during which someone elected to office can participate in government as an elected official) of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed (a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions), three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) of the United States, and within every subsequent (happening or coming after something else) Term (a fixed period during which someone elected to office can participate in government as an elected official) of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else); and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)) Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election (the selection of a person or persons for office by vote) to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.) shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command); and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment (a charge of misconduct made against the holder of a public office. It involves an accusation against that official and is a political process.).

Section. 3.

The Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) of the United States shall be composed (arranged carefully) of two Senators (a member of the Senate) from each State, chosen by the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) thereof, for six Years; and each Senator (a member of the Senate) shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election (the selection of a person or persons for office by vote), they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes (a group of people that are considered together because they are similar in some way). The Seats of the Senators (a member of the Senate) of the first Class (a group of people that are considered together because they are similar in some way) shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class (a group of people that are considered together because they are similar in some way) at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class (a group of people that are considered together because they are similar in some way) at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation (an occasion when you officially announce that you have decided to leave your job or an organization, or a written statement that says you will be leaving), or otherwise, during the Recess (a period of time when the proceedings of Congress, a committee, a court of law, or other official body are temporarily suspended) of the Legislature of any State, the Executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)) thereof may make temporary Appointments (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) until the next Meeting of the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws), which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator (a member of the Senate) who shall not have attained (to have arrived at or succeeded in reaching something) to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant (one of the people who lives in or occupies a particular place) of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability) of the United States shall be President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.), but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) shall chuse their other Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command), and also a President pro tempore (the senior member of the majority party in the Senate who serves as the president of the Senate when the Vice President is absent), in the Absence of the Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability), or when he shall exercise the Office of President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the United States.

The Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments (a charge of misconduct made against the holder of a public office. It involves an accusation against that official and is a political process.). When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice (the head judge in a court of law, especially the US Supreme Court) shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted (to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a court of law) without the Concurrence (agreement) of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment (an official decision given by a judge or court of law) in Cases of Impeachment (a charge of misconduct made against the holder of a public office. It involves an accusation against that official and is a political process.) shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification (to lose eligibility because of being deemed unfit or not meeting the conditions to fulfil a role) to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted (to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a court of law) shall nevertheless be liable (eligible to being legally punished or forced to do something by law) and subject to Indictment (an official written statement charging someone with a criminal offense), Trial (a legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examine information to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime), Judgment (an official decision given by a judge or court of law) and Punishment (a penalty inflicted on an offender through judicial procedure), according to Law.

Section. 4.

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections (the selection of a person or persons for office by vote) for Senators (a member of the Senate) and Representatives (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else), shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) thereof; but the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations (an official rule or order), except as to the Places of chusing Senators (a member of the Senate).

The Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) a different Day.

Section. 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections (the selection of a person or persons for office by vote), Returns and Qualifications (necessary skills, personal qualities, or type of experience that makes you suitable for a particular job or position) of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute (make up, form, compose. If several people or things constitute something, they are the parts that form it.) a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn (stops for a short amount of time) from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings (when someone uses a court of law to deal with a legal case), punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence (agreement) of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings (when someone uses a court of law to deal with a legal case), and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment (an official decision given by a judge or court of law) require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government), shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn (stops for a short amount of time) for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6.

The Senators (a member of the Senate) and Representatives (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) shall receive a Compensation (payment) for their Services, to be ascertained (to find out something) by Law, and paid out of the Treasury (a governmental department in charge of finances and especially the collection, management, and expenditure of public revenues) of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence), Felony (a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for more than one year) and Breach of the Peace (a violation of public order as by a riot or disturbance), be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator (a member of the Senate) or Representative (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments (money or another form of payment for work you have done; compensation for services) whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section. 7.

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.); but the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) may propose or concur (agreement) with Amendments (a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document. This is also the process of making formal changes to the United States Constitution. As of 2021, there are 27 amendments or “changes” to the Constitution.) as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.) and the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.), shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) by their Adjournment (stops for a short amount of time) prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order (1) for the purpose of doing something 2) the way that things or events are arranged in relation to each other, so that one thing is first, another thing is second, etc.), Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence (agreement) of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) and House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.) may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment (stops for a short amount of time)) shall be presented to the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) and House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.), according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8.

The Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes (a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions), Duties, Imposts (something established by authority) and Excises (a tax imposed within a nation or colony, levied on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of specific commodities), to pay the Debts (a sum of money that a person or organization owes) and provide for the common Defence (military protection for all public citizens) and general Welfare (the overall wellbeing of the citizenry) of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts (something established by authority) and Excises (a tax imposed within a nation or colony, levied on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of specific commodities) shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate (to govern or direct according to rule) Commerce (economic activity, and the exchange of good and services between businesses or entities) with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization (the course of action undertaken to become a citizen of a country other than the country in which one was born), and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies (1) a state of being financially insolvent 2) completely lacking in a particular desirable quality or attribute) throughout the United States;

To coin (1) a usually flat piece of metal issued governmental authority as money 2) to make, create (a coin)) Money, regulate (to govern or direct according to rule) the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin (1) a usually flat piece of metal issued governmental authority as money 2) to make, create (a coin)), and fix the Standard of Weights (the relative importance or authority accorded something) and Measures (1) a step planned or taken as a means to an end 2) specifically: a proposed legislative act 3) a unit or object used to find out the size, extent, or amount of something);

To provide for the Punishment (a penalty inflicted on an offender through judicial procedure) of counterfeiting (made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive) the Securities and current Coin (1) a usually flat piece of metal issued governmental authority as money 2) to make, create (a coin)) of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing (o get or achieve something) for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute (make up, form, compose. If several people or things constitute something, they are the parts that form it.) Tribunals (a court or forum of justice) inferior to the supreme (the greatest possible) Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies (a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for more than one year) committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque (permission to cross over the frontier into another country’s territory in order to take a ship) and Reprisal (authorizes taking the captured vessel to the home port of the capturer), and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation (the act of authorizing something for a specific purpose or use) of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term (a fixed period during which someone elected to office can participate in government as an elected official) than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government (the group of people who govern a country, state, or town) and Regulation (an official rule or order) of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia (a body of armed citizens who are equipped to defend the country, its system of laws, and the people’s liberties) to execute the Laws of the Union (a group of countries or states with the same government), suppress Insurrections (a usually violent attempt to take control of a government) and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia (a body of armed citizens who are equipped to defend the country, its system of laws, and the people’s liberties), and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) of the Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command), and the Authority of training the Militia (a body of armed citizens who are equipped to defend the country, its system of laws, and the people’s liberties) according to the discipline prescribed by Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government);

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government), become the Seat of the Government (the group of people who govern a country, state, or town) of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection (to give legal existence to by a formal act of authority) of Forts (a permanent army post), Magazines (a place where goods or supplies are stored), Arsenals (an establishment for the manufacture or storage of arms and military equipment), dock-Yards (a shipyard), and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested (protected or established by law or contract. Vested rights, powers, property, etc. belong to you and cannot be removed.) by this Constitution in the Government (the group of people who govern a country, state, or town) of the United States, or in any Department or Officer (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) thereof.

Section. 9.

The Migration (to move from one country, place, or locality to another) or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax (a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions) or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus (the legal procedure that protects against unlawful and indefinite imprisonment) shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder (a legislative act that gives the government or King permission to give punishment to a person, even though he or she was not found guilty by a court of law) or ex post facto Law (a law that makes an act a crime after it was committed) shall be passed.

No Capitation (a fee or payment of a uniform amount for each person), or other direct, Tax (a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions) shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census (a count of the population) or enumeration herein (in this place, situation, document, etc.) before directed to be taken.

No Tax (a mandatory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits; an added cost of some goods, services, property, and transactions) or Duty shall be laid on Articles (1) a part of a law or legal agreement that deals with a particular point 2) a particular kind of object) exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation (an official rule or order) of Commerce (economic activity, and the exchange of good and services between businesses or entities) or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury (a governmental department in charge of finances and especially the collection, management, and expenditure of public revenues), but in Consequence of Appropriations (the act of authorizing something for a specific purpose or use) made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures (the act or process of spending) of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility (a descriptive name given to the body of persons forming the “noble” or royal class in a country or state, aristocracy) shall be granted (given something is true) by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government), accept of any present, Emolument (money or another form of payment for work you have done; compensation for services), Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section. 10.

No State shall enter into any Treaty (an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation that requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senators present), Alliance (1) a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes 2) a union between people, groups, countries, etc. 3) a relationship in which people agree to work together), or Confederation (a group of people, political parties, or organizations that have united for political purposes or trade); grant Letters of Marque (permission to cross over the frontier into another country’s territory in order to take a ship) and Reprisal (authorizes taking the captured vessel to the home port of the capturer); coin (1) a usually flat piece of metal issued governmental authority as money 2) to make, create (a coin)) Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin (1) a usually flat piece of metal issued governmental authority as money 2) to make, create (a coin)) a Tender in Payment of Debts (a sum of money that a person or organization owes); pass any Bill of Attainder (a legislative act that gives the government or King permission to give punishment to a person, even though he or she was not found guilty by a court of law), ex post facto Law (a law that makes an act a crime after it was committed), or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility (a descriptive name given to the body of persons forming the “noble” or royal class in a country or state, aristocracy).

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government), lay any Imposts (something established by authority) or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts (something established by authority), laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury (a governmental department in charge of finances and especially the collection, management, and expenditure of public revenues) of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government).

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government), lay any Duty of Tonnage (ships in terms of the total number of tons registered or carried or of their carrying capacity. 1 ton = 2,000 lbs.), keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage (an official arrangement to do something, especially one that is related to your work) in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article. II.

Section. 1.

The executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)) Power shall be vested (protected or established by law or contract. Vested rights, powers, property, etc. belong to you and cannot be removed.) in a President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term (a fixed period during which someone elected to office can participate in government as an elected official) of four Years, and, together with the Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability), chosen for the same Term (a fixed period during which someone elected to office can participate in government as an elected official), be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen), in such Manner as the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) thereof may direct, a Number of Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election), equal to the whole Number of Senators (a member of the Senate) and Representatives (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) to which the State may be entitled in the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government): but no Senator (a member of the Senate) or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) an Elector (people who have the right to vote in an election).

The Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election) shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant (one of the people who lives in or occupies a particular place) of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government (the group of people who govern a country, state, or town) of the United States, directed to the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.). The President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) shall, in the Presence of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) and House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.), open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business), if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election) appointed (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen); and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives (the “lower” house of Congress in which states are represented based on population. Presently there are 435 members in this body.) shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business); and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business). But in chusing the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business), the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist (to be composed or made up of something) of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business), the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election) shall be the Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability). But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.) shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability).

The Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may determine the Time of chusing the Electors (people who have the right to vote in an election), and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country), or a Citizen (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of the United States, at the time of the Adoption (the act of starting to use a particular plan, method, way of speaking, etc.) of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business); neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained (to have arrived at or succeeded in reaching something) to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) from Office, or of his Death, Resignation (an occasion when you officially announce that you have decided to leave your job or an organization, or a written statement that says you will be leaving), or Inability to discharge (the act of removing an obligation or liability) the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability), and the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation (an occasion when you officially announce that you have decided to leave your job or an organization, or a written statement that says you will be leaving) or Inability, both of the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) and Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability), declaring what Officer (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) shall then act as President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business), and such Officer (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) shall be elected.

The President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation (payment), which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument (money or another form of payment for work you have done; compensation for services) from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully (1) a strong feeling of trust or confidence in someone or something 2) belief and trust in God 3) referring to any religious or spiritual belief a person believes to be true to himself or herself) execute the Office of President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend (the action of defending from or resisting attack. Note: In British English spelling they use the spelling with a “c” – defence. The Founding Fathers were raised learning British English. Today defense is spelled with “s” in the United States. Both are correct ways to spell the same word.) the Constitution of the United States."

Section. 2.

The President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia (a body of armed citizens who are equipped to defend the country, its system of laws, and the people’s liberties) of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) in each of the executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)) Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment (a charge of misconduct made against the holder of a public office. It involves an accusation that official and is a political process.).

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.), to make Treaties (an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation that requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senators present), provided two thirds of the Senators (a member of the Senate) present concur (agreement); and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.), shall appoint (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) Ambassadors (a diplomatic agent of the highest rank accredited to a foreign government or sovereign, as the resident representative of his or her own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment), other public Ministers (a politician who is in charge of a government department) and Consuls (a government official sent to live in a foreign city to help people from his or her own country who are living or staying there), Judges of the supreme (the greatest possible) Court, and all other Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) of the United States, whose Appointments (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) are not herein (in this place, situation, document, etc.) otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may by Law vest the Appointment (1) to choose someone for a position or a job 2) to arrange or decide a time or place for something to happen) of such inferior Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command), as they think proper, in the President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business) shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess (a period of time when the proceedings of Congress, a committee, a court of law, or other official body are temporarily suspended) of the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.), by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) Information of the State of the Union (a group of countries or states with the same government), and recommend to their Consideration such Measures (1) a step planned or taken as a means to an end 2) specifically: a proposed legislative act 3) a unit or object used to find out the size, extent, or amount of something) as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment (stops for a short amount of time), he may adjourn (stops for a short amount of time) them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors (a diplomatic agent of the highest rank accredited to a foreign government or sovereign, as the resident representative of his or her own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment) and other public Ministers (a politician who is in charge of a government department); he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully (1) a strong feeling of trust or confidence in someone or something 2) belief and trust in God 3) referring to any religious or spiritual belief a person believes to be true to himself or herself) executed, and shall Commission all the Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) of the United States.

Section. 4.

The President (1) the head of government in some countries 2) someone who has the highest position in an organization or business), Vice President (an office next in rank to a president and usually empowered to serve as president in that officer’s absence or disability) and all civil Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command) of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction (to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a court of law) of, Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence), Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III.

Section. 1.

The judicial (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with trying all cases that involve the government and with the administration of justice within its jurisdiction) Power of the United States, shall be vested (protected or established by law or contract. Vested rights, powers, property, etc. belong to you and cannot be removed.) in one supreme (the greatest possible) Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may from time to time ordain (formally say that something should happen) and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme (the greatest possible) and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation (payment), which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section. 2.

The judicial (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with trying all cases that involve the government and with the administration of justice within its jurisdiction) Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties (an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation that requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senators present) made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors (a diplomatic agent of the highest rank accredited to a foreign government or sovereign, as the resident representative of his or her own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment), other public Ministers (a politician who is in charge of a government department) and Consuls (a government official sent to live in a foreign city to help people from his or her own country who are living or staying there);—to all Cases of admiralty (the court having jurisdiction over questions of maritime law) and maritime (of, relating to, or bordering on the sea) Jurisdiction (the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised);—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;— between a State and Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of another State,—between Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of different States,—between Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) thereof, and foreign States, Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors (a diplomatic agent of the highest rank accredited to a foreign government or sovereign, as the resident representative of his or her own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment), other public Ministers (a politician who is in charge of a government department) and Consuls (a government official sent to live in a foreign city to help people from his or her own country who are living or staying there), and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme (the greatest possible) Court shall have original Jurisdiction (the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised). In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme (the greatest possible) Court shall have appellate (having the power to review the judgment of another tribunal) Jurisdiction (the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised), both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations (an official rule or order) as the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) shall make.

The Trial (a legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examine information to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime) of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial (a legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examine information to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime) shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial (a legal process in which a judge and often a jury in a court of law examine information to decide whether someone is guilty of a crime) shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may by Law have directed.

Section. 3.

Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence) against the United States, shall consist (to be composed or made up of something) only in levying (1) to charge (a tax, fee, or fine) 2) the enlistment or conscription of men for military service) War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted (to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a court of law) of Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence) unless on the Testimony (firsthand authentication of a fact, evidence) of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) shall have Power to declare the Punishment (a penalty inflicted on an offender through judicial procedure) of Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence), but no Attainder (extinction of the civil rights and capacities of a person upon sentence of death or outlawry usually after a conviction of treason) of Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence) shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture (to lose or lose a right especially by some error, offense, or crime) except during the Life of the Person attainted (extinction of the civil rights and capacities of a person upon sentence of death or outlawry usually after a conviction of treason).

Article. IV.

Section. 1.

Full Faith (1) a strong feeling of trust or confidence in someone or something 2) belief and trust in God 3) referring to any religious or spiritual belief a person believes to be true to himself or herself) and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with trying all cases that involve the government and with the administration of justice within its jurisdiction) Proceedings (when someone uses a court of law to deal with a legal case) of every other State. And the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings (when someone uses a court of law to deal with a legal case) shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2.

The Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities (special protection from what is required for most people by law) of Citizens (a person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country) in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason (the crime of being disloyal to your country or its government, especially by helping its enemies or trying to remove the government using violence), Felony (a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for more than one year), or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice (fairness in the way people are treated), and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)) Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction (the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised) of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation (an official rule or order) therein, be discharged (the act of removing an obligation or liability) from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section. 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) into this Union (a group of countries or states with the same government); but no new State shall be formed or erected (to give legal existence to by a formal act of authority) within the Jurisdiction (the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised) of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) of the States concerned as well as of the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government).

The Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government) shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations (an official rule or order) respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section. 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union (a group of countries or states with the same government) a Republican Form of Government (the group of people who govern a country, state, or town), and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws), or of the Executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval) (when the Legislature (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Article. V.

The Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government), whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments (a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document. This is also the process of making formal changes to the United States Constitution. As of 2021, there are 27 amendments or “changes” to the Constitution.) to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention (1) a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same government 2) an agreement between countries covering particular matters, especially less formal than a treaty) for proposing Amendments (a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document. This is also the process of making formal changes to the United States Constitution. As of 2021, there are 27 amendments or “changes” to the Constitution.), which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified (to make a written agreement official by signing it) by the Legislatures (an institution that has the power to make or change laws) of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions (1) a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same government 2) an agreement between countries covering particular matters, especially less formal than a treaty) in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification (to make a written agreement official by signing it) may be proposed by the Congress (a formal meeting that consists of both the House of Representatives and Senate working together as one body of government); Provided that no Amendment (a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document. This is also the process of making formal changes to the United States Constitution. As of 2021, there are 27 amendments or “changes” to the Constitution.) which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article (1) a part of a law or legal agreement that deals with a particular point 2) a particular kind of object); and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage (the right or privilege of voting) in the Senate (one of the two houses of Congress historically known as the “upper” house that contains two representatives from each state regardless of population. Presently there are 100 members in this body. State legislatures also have an upper house.).

Article. VI.

All Debts (a sum of money that a person or organization owes) contracted and Engagements (an official arrangement to do something, especially one that is related to your work) entered into, before the Adoption (the act of starting to use a particular plan, method, way of speaking, etc.) of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation (a group of people, political parties, or organizations that have united for political purposes or trade).

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance (to follow and try to catch or capture (someone or something) for usually a long distance or time) thereof; and all Treaties (an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation that requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senators present) made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme (the greatest possible) Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators (a member of the Senate) and Representatives (someone who has been chosen to speak, vote, or make decisions for someone else) before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures (an institution that has the power to make or change laws), and all executive (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with such powers as diplomatic representation, superintendence of the execution or carrying out of the laws, and appointment of officials and that usually has some power over legislation enactment (as through veto or signature approval)) and judicial (belonging to the branch of government that is charged with trying all cases that involve the government and with the administration of justice within its jurisdiction) Officers (one who holds an office of trust, authority, or command), both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification (necessary skills, personal qualities, or type of experience that makes you suitable for a particular job or position) to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article. VII.

The Ratification (to make a written agreement official by signing it) of the Conventions (1) a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same government 2) an agreement between countries covering particular matters, especially less formal than a treaty) of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying (to make a written agreement official by signing it) the Same.

The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

Attest William Jackson Secretary

done in Convention (1) a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same government 2) an agreement between countries covering particular matters, especially less formal than a treaty) by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

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